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Tran Dynasty (1225 AD - 1400 AD)

An ambitious commoner, Tran Canh, married the Ly Dynasty's last queen, Chieu Hoang. He shrewdly plotted and manoeuvred his way to power and finally founded the Tran Dynasty. During this period, Buddhism, which had become predominant under the Ly Dynasty continued to play an important role, but it was subsequently weakened by co-existence with Confucianism, Taoism and various other popular beliefs and customs.

An ambitious commoner, Tran Canh, married the Ly Dynasty's last queen, Chieu Hoang. He shrewdly plotted and manoeuvred his way to power and finally founded the Tran Dynasty. During this period, Buddhism, which had become predominant under the Ly Dynasty continued to play an important role, but it was subsequently weakened by co-existence with Confucianism, Taoism and various other popular beliefs and customs. The century old competitive examination system underwent draconian revisions. An administration incorporating both the reigning king and the heir to the title of the previous reign was officially adopted to ensure its continuity, and to prevent any dispute between the two companies.

The Tran society was somewhat democratic: common people occasionally met the Emperor directly to ask for his help. The society and economy, disordered under late Ly now recovered step by step. The Tran Dynasty is renowned for its brilliant military victories, especially that on the Bach Dang River by the king's brother, Tran Hung Dao, against Kublai Khan's much larger Mongol armies. During the reign, the country's territorial ambitions to the south continued. The king's sister, Princess Huyen Tran, married the King of Champa in 1307. The marriage extended the national territory southward with the peaceful annexation of the Hue region, and at the same time, inaugurated the politics of diplomatic marriage.
 
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