logo hvt
asean travel and tours. asean travel and tours. asean travel and tours. asean travel and tours. asean travel and tours. asean travel and tours.


Toungoo Dynasty (1486?1752)

Starting in the 1480s, Ava faced constant internal rebellions and external attacks from the Shan States, and began to disintegrate. In 1510, Toungoo, located in the remote southeastern corner of the Ava kingdom, also declared independence.
 

SE Asia in 1540

First Toungoo Empire (1486?1599)

Starting in the 1480s, Ava faced constant internal rebellions and external attacks from the Shan States, and began to disintegrate. In 1510, Toungoo, located in the remote southeastern corner of the Ava kingdom, also declared independence. When the Confederation of Shan States conquered Ava in 1527, many Burmans fled southeast to Toungoo, the only kingdom remaining under Burman rule, and one surrounded by larger hostile kingdoms.

Toungoo, led by its ambitious king Tabinshwehti and his deputy Gen. Bayinnaung, would go on to reunify the petty kingdoms that had existed since the fall of the Pagan Empire, and found the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia. First, the upstart kingdom defeated a more powerful Hanthawaddy in the Toungoo?Hanthawaddy War (1535?1541). Tabinshwehti moved the capital to newly captured Pegu in 1539. Toungoo expanded its authority up to Pagan in 1544 but failed to conquer Arakan in 1546 and Siam in 1548. Tabinshwehti's successor Bayinnaung continued the policy of expansion, conquering Ava in 1555, Shan States (1557), Lan Na (1558), Manipur (1559), Chinese Shan States (1562), Siam (1564, 1569), and Lan Xang (1574), and bringing much of western and central mainland Southeast Asia under his rule.

Bayinnaung put in place a lasting administrative system that reduced the power of hereditary Shan chiefs, and brought Shan customs in line with low-land norms. But he could not replicate an effective administrative system everywhere in his far flung empire. His empire was a loose collection of former sovereign kingdoms, whose kings were loyal to him as the Cakravartin (Universal Ruler), not the kingdom of Toungoo.

The overextended empire unraveled soon after Bayinnaung's death in 1581. Siam declared independence in 1584 and went to war with Burma until 1605. By 1593, the kingdom had lost its possessions in Siam, Lang Xang and Manipur. By 1597, all internal regions, including the city of Toungoo, the erstwhile home of the dynasty, had revolted. In 1599, the Arakanese forces aided by Portuguese mercenaries, and in alliance with the rebellious Toungoo forces, sacked Pegu. The country fell into chaos, with each region claiming a king. Portuguese mercenary Filipe de Brito e Nicote promptly rebelled against his Arakanese masters, and established Goa-backed Portuguese rule at Thanlyin in 1603.

Restored Toungoo Kingdom (1599?1752)

Bayinnaung's EmpireWhile the interregnum that followed the fall of Pagan Empire lasted over 250 years (1287?1555), that following the fall of First Toungoo was relatively short-lived. One of Bayinnaung's sons, Nyaungyan, immediately began the reunification effort, successfully restoring central authority over Upper Burma and Shan States by 1605. His successor Anaukpetlun defeated the Portuguese at Thanlyin in 1613, and by 1616, extended control down the Tenasserim coast to Tavoy (Dawei) and recovered Lan Na from the Siamese. His brother Thalun rebuilt the the war torn country. He ordered the first ever census in Burmese history in 1635, which showed that the kingdom about two million people. By 1650, the three able kings?Nyaungyan, Anaukpetlun and Thalun?had successfully rebuilt a smaller but far more manageable kingdom.

More importantly, the new dynasty proceeded to create a legal and political system whose basic features would continue under the Konbaung dynasty well into the 19th century. The crown completely replaced the hereditary chieftainships with appointed governorships in the entire Irrawaddy valley, and greatly reduced the hereditary rights of Shan chiefs. It also reined in the continuous growth of monastic wealth and autonomy, giving a greater tax base. Its trade and secular administrative reforms built a prosperous economy for more than 80 years. Except for a few occasional rebellions and an external war?Burma defeated Siam's attempt to take Lan Na in 1665?the kingdom was largely at peace for the rest of the 17th century.

The kingdom entered a gradual decline. The authority of the kings deteriorated rapidly in the 1720s. From 1724 onwards, the Manipuris began raiding the Upper Chindwin valley. In 1725, southern Lan Na (Chiang Mai) successfully revolted, leaving just northern Lan Na (Chiang Saen and Kengtung) under an increasingly nominal Burmese rule. The Manipuri raids intensified in the 1730s, reaching increasingly deeper parts of central Burma. In 1740, the Mon in Lower Burma began a rebellion, and founded the Restored Hanthawaddy Kingdom, and by 1745 controlled much of Lower Burma. (In the 1740s, the Siamese moved up their authority up to Tavoy and Martaban on the Tenasserim coast.) Hanthawaddy invaded Upper Burma in 1750, and captured Ava in April 1752, ending the 266-year-old Toungoo dynasty.

 

 
JTA Tours
Country
City
Style
Length
Country
City
Star
Country
Departure
Arrival
google icon

tours-border


Head office: 4th Floor 18 Yen Ninh Str, Ba Dinh Dist, Hanoi, Vietnam. Tel: +84 90 493 0000. Email: sale@jtatours.com
Copyright © 1996 - 2016 Journey To Asian.
Vietnam Tour | Myanmar Tours | Halong Cruise Tours | Vietnam Flight Ticket | Indochina Tours | Indochina Travel | Cambodia Tours | Cambodia Travel | Laos Tours | Laos Travel| Links To Us


swimwear for women

bao moi

mon an ngon

tin nhanh

asta   iata   pata